The posterior cervical fusion is the most complex cervical spine surgical procedure.  It should only be undertaken by specialized spine surgeons with vast experience.  In contrast to the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion, which is performed from the front part of the spine, the Posterior Cervical Fusion is performed from the back of the spine.  The is a more significant undertaking as the the spinal cord is vulnerable in the posterior spine.  In my experience, the most common reason a patient would require a Posterior Cervical Fusion is due to a pseudarthrosis (non-healing) of an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.